PIXEL-Pixel(in camera) is the tiny photo sites or light receptor of a camera sensor. It collects the light coming from a source.Camera sensor pixels                                                                                                              

Pixel Quantity: It is the quantity of pixel (tiny dot light receptor) in an image sensor. Higher the pixel in number larger will be the image size. If it says the camera is 1 MP (Mega pixel) then the total pixel of the sensor will be 1 million.                                                                                                            In phone camera the sensor is small so the camera even with higher pixel cannot make a good quality image like another camera does. Because the higher number of pixels makes the density higher and for which the required light cannot capture properly by the pixel.                               Only the higher pixel doesn’t make an image good in quality. The quality depends on other factor also like the pixel size, light, the lens quality used by camera etc.

Lense-Lens is the specially designed transparent device to diverge or converge the light passing through it. In a camera lens plays major role in proper focusing of light on sensor. Quality of a lens affects the clarity of an image. Most of the smartphone camera uses plastic lens. The lens made by some popular brand like Zeiss, Leica are known to be best quality. Other than this brand Apple, Samsung uses its own made lens in their smartphone which is also good in quality.

OIS (Optical image stabilization)-It is the mechanism of make stable the focus of a camera lenses toward scene to prevent the blur image due to shaking of camera/phone. during taking of a photo/video the phone may shake due to our movement or for the shaky hand and hence we don’t get the desired clear image. If there is the feature of OIS in the camera, its lenses can adjust itself according to the movement hence we get clear image. The smartphone camera with the feature is good but it doesn’t come with all the smartphone except high priced smartphone.

EIS (electronic image stabilization)-Its main function is to stabilise the camera to get a clear image. As it uses its digital system to stabilise the image is not clear as the phone with OIS.

Focus-It means the mechanism by which user adjusts the camera lens to get an optimum viewpoint of a scene. It helps to get a clear and sharp image of the specific point of the scene.

 There are two types of focus system, auto-focus and manual focus. In auto-focus the lenses are automatically adjusted by a motor drive. And in manual focus, user have to rotate the focus ring to adjust the lenses for focus.

Generally, a smartphone uses Auto focus system for focusing purpose.

Autofocus (AF)- contrast-detection auto-focus phase-detection auto-focus (PDAF), laser auto-focus.

Aperture-It is the fixed or resizable opening or pothole of a camera where it enables pass of the light into the camera from a source in required amount. Quality of image is 30% depends on its opening size. higher the number of opening size/diameters more amount of light can pass into the camera and then we get a brighter image. If the opening/diameter is reducing then the less quantity of light can pass through it hence we get a less bright image. Most of camera uses an adjustable Aperture and it can adjust the amount of light that require but till now a smartphone uses fixed Aperture that can pass a fixed amount of light not more or less than that amount.

 

Sensor size- The sensor of a camera is combination of many pixels or photo site’s, which main function is to receive the light photon coming through the lenses and then it sends the signal for processing the image of the scene. Usually, a smartphone cameras sensor size is smaller than a DSLR, SLR. Camera’s sensor size is one of the most important to get a best quality image. Bigger the sensor size better image quality. Along with the size of sensor the size of pixel or phorocytes it has also affected the quality.

      If the sensor with increased number of pixel or photo sites then the photo sites size gets reduced and hence the pixel can capture not enough light. So, the image quality is not good enough.

      This same situation occurs in smartphone because the smart phone has a small sensor but when its megapixel number is increased resolution of the image can increase but the photo quality may not good.

Zoom-It means to have a closer look of some object or scene. Its capacity is expressed in “x” e.g., 5X Zoom. If it says the camera have a 5X zoom feature then it means the camera can expand the scene for 5 times bigger than normal to get the exact scene.  There are two types of zoom features available in recent smartphone 1-Digital and 2-Optical.

Digital zoom- Here the camera doesn’t use it lenses to zoom the object (actually not zoom the object but zoom the image that is possible to capture at that moment) but the photo taken by the camera is cropped digitally itself according to the zoom requirement. So, the zoomed photo is not clear here.

Optical zoom-Here the camera uses its lenses to get a closer view of the object. The lens can move back and forth to adjust the zoom. as it uses the lens for zoom it does not lose the quality of the image. So, the user can get a good quality image.

        As it requires extra rotator for lens to move and require more space so, only a few high range smartphones have this feature.

HDR-High dynamic range in short HDR is a process of mixing different bright and dark photo to obtain a perfect image. The camera takes several photos of a scene in different shutter speed and automatically combines into a single image.

Panorama-It is a technique to take a wider photo with more details. When user rotates the camera using panorama feature, the camera takes many photos serially and stitches digitally all the photo to get a wider photo of a scene.

Flash- It is a flash of light during a photoshoot to illuminate the scene. It helps to take photo in dark situation. To produce the flash of light usually two types of flash light used in smartphone.

Xenon Flash-In this flash type xenon lights are used. It has a very fast and true tone light which is usable even in high-speed moving object in law light condition. Its expense is high and consumes a high power and cannot run continuously. So, a few smartphones use this light.

Led flash-In this flash type led lights are used. These types of flash are common in smartphones as it consumes less power and can be use continuously for long time. To get a better illumination there in use of more than one led light during shot. In dual led system two different toned led lights are used, one for warm light and another for cool light which help to make the image more realistic in color.

Though it has some pros like, low battery usage, continuous lighting and less expense, it also has some cons also like as its light is slow so it is not preferable for the shoot of high-speed moving object. If we shoot in this situation then the image will come out in blur.

Raw-It is an image format where we get the original photo that the camera can capture without editing.

       Usually, smartphone edits itself the image it takes and user get the edited photo only if the Raw image feature is not available. If user get the Raw photo, then the user can edit the image himself as required, which is a good option to get a best image. Not all smartphone has the feature for Raw photo.

Video recording- each smartphone has an option for video recording. The video quality recorded by the camera depends on the resolution and fps.

Resolution-

UHD (Ultra high definition) -It has a 3840*2160 number of pixels per photo or frame.

Full HD-It has a 1980*1080 number of pixels.

 HD (High definition)-It has 1366*768 number of pixels. Higher the pixels quantity cleaner will be the video quality.

fps- frame per second in short fps means, the quantity of photo taken in a second by the camera during video recording. If it says “30fps” that means the camera can capture 30 frames or photo in a second.

Higher the fps number smoother will be the video play and better for shooting slow motion video.

wide angle- It is the angle used to cover a huge area during photoshoot. When the focal length is decreases the angle increases of the camera and thus it can capture a huge area. The wide-angle camera used in smartphone has a fixed minimum (less than 33mm) focal length. As focal length decreases the wide-angle increases. When wide angle increases the covering area by the camera increases.  

This camera is useful when user have to take a landscape photo as it covers more area.

Another term “Ultra-wide angle” means more wider angle e.g., 114, 120 Degree angle.

Selfie- The camera in front of smartphone is known as selfie camera